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World Conference on Ecology, will be organized around the theme “Raising awareness to Conserve Natural resources and Ecology”
Ecology 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Ecology 2018
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It is a branch of natural science dealing with the interaction and relation of living subjects with one another with respect to their environment, it is the platform where biology, geographical science and earth science which act as an interdisciplinary field. It differs from the environmental science and has been closely related to ethology, evolutionary science and genetics that are focused to understand the ecological function and how it is affected by above features. In general terms, the ecology has been categorised into plant ecology and animal ecology which deals in plant and animal interaction with respect to their environment respectively. In respect to these two categories a new term has been put forward by biologist that describes the behaviour of animal with special reference to their surrounding known to be “ethology”.
- Track 1-1Ecophysiology
- Track 1-2Ecosystem Ecology
- Track 1-3Ecological Footprint
- Track 1-4Terrestrial Ecology
- Track 1-5Space Ecology
- Track 1-6Global Ecology
- Track 1-7Forest Ecology
- Track 1-8 Human Ecology
- Track 1-9 Landscape Ecology
- Track 1-10Synecology
- Track 1-11Autecology
- Track 1-12Invasion Ecology
The word deforestation has a great impact on the ecological balance of the planet earth which has been mostly distributed by this process. It is the process where the established forest was permanently removed or destroyed for other uses. A study revealed that approximately 18 million hectares of forest area is removed from the earth each year and is one of the major culprits of global warming. Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand and many parts of Africa and Europe has the maximum level of deforestation. These terms come in many forms like fires, unsustainable logging, clearing for agriculture which pushes many species of plants and animals towards extinction. Today it has been seen that 15 percent of greenhouse gas emission is due to deforestation and studies reveal that around 17 percent of forest has been depleted in last 50 years.
- Track 2-1 Causes of Deforestation
- Track 2-2Effects of Deforestation
- Track 2-3Conservation Strategies
- Track 2-4Economic Impact
- Track 2-5Control and Measures
The constant heating of the earth surface due to the trapped solar radiation mainly by the air pollutants and greenhouse gases is known to be as global warming. It is a topic that can be relate to the climate change of the planet, as the rising temperature fuel up hotter heat waves, droughts, rainfall and hurricanes. The process can be slowed down by reducing the carbon footprint and increasing afforestation and decreasing deforestation. Studies regarding global warming reveals that the average earth temperature had raised to 0.95° C in the year 2016 and probably it will rise more if the situation continue to be like this. The major portion of the causes and effects are caused by the human. The major evidence of global warming is the rising level of sea, melting of glaciers, the rising temperature of earth surface as compared to sea and last but not the least the depletion of ozone layer from the surface.
- Track 3-1 Contribution of mankind
- Track 3-2Greenhouse Effect
- Track 3-3 Ozone layer and surface level ozone
- Track 3-4Circulation of Atmospheric Winds
- Track 3-5Solar Impact
- Track 3-6Oxygen Depletion
Climate change is a change that occurs in the regular pattern of an average weather condition of a region or the whole world. It happens due to the constant heating of the earth surface by the greenhouse gases mostly CO2 which in these present times is 42 per cent more than it did before the industrial revolution. These present is not the start point but has already begun since 1990 and today the temperature is hiked by 0.7°C averagely. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change) an authoritative voice which has assesses the scientific and economic information regarding climate change. Evidences like shifting of animals and plants from their natural behaviour and function, attaining of maturity sooner by the plants, longer growing season are few that supports the climate change is on its way to disrupt the normal livelihood of the planet which is putting a risk to the core existence of the planet and its resides.
- Track 4-1 Carbon cycle Feedback
- Track 4-2Climate Change Challenges
- Track 4-3Consequences of Climate Change
- Track 4-4Climate Hazards
- Track 4-5Risk of Climate Change
Carbon footprint is described as the total amount of CO2 or the greenhouse gases released by an individual, community, organisation or product directly or indirectly to the atmosphere; it is measured in tonnes of CO2 equivalent. Organisation assessments and the product assessments are the common types of carbon footprint. Carbon footprint is essential for the management of ecology and its part.
- Track 5-1 Carbon Regulation
- Track 5-2 Carbon footprint Study (CFS)
- Track 5-3Impact of increasing carbon dioxide gas
- Track 5-4Role in Glacial Cycle
- Track 5-5Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration
The process involving the conversion of waste products into useful subjects that help in lowering down the pollutants level on earth surface as it keeps the waste away from the landfills where they might contaminate the water system flowing down the earth surface; it is a useful advancement to save energy. 34 per cent of the wastes created by Americans are being recycled and countries like Austria and Germany are carrying out the highest recycling rates at 63 and 62 per cent respectively. Historically, increases in waste generation have had a clear statistical relationship with gross domestic product per capita: the stronger the economy, the more waste. Yet some countries have successfully decoupled economic growth from waste. Even with more income, less landfilling means more source reduction, reuse, and recycling which, in turn, reduces climate impact. Early studies about "green jobs" indicate that recycling and composting create much more employment than disposal, providing opportunities for training, employment, and new investment in next-generation waste technologies.
- Track 6-1Hazardous Radioactive, Biological and Chemical Waste
- Track 6-2Waste Disposal
- Track 6-3Collection and Processing
- Track 6-4Manufacturing
- Track 6-5Environmental Importance
Subject dealing both ecology and evolutionary biology whose main concern was to safeguard the available resources with proper preservation and management. Generally, the conservation word is a purely biological topic which states animal and plant conservation because of the loss in biodiversity that are mainly influenced by human activities. The conservation deals with many areas of economics, law, social science and religion. It is an only pathway to sustain the future of our planet earth. Conservation plays a vital role in sustaining the ecological system, the main part of the conservation must be a lead by human a well conserved system will established an equilibrium state for the present as usual for the future generation.
- Track 7-1Wildlife Conservation
- Track 7-2 Marine conservation
- Track 7-3Role of Conservation
- Track 7-4Conservation Policy
It is word that everyone comes across, when a natural environment is contaminated by foreign substances that were harmful to living beings and brings an adverse change to the environment in any form either physically or chemically, pollution can be sub divided into different forms on basis of their occurrence like air, water, noise, soil etc. the birth of any form of pollution is either from the point or the non-point source the point are easy to identify and distinguished which makes them easy to control but in case of the non-point birth source it’s hard to control as they are difficult to locate out and monitor. Pollutants are the major source of pollution. The issues of environmental pollution and climate change has become an international concern due to their unfavourable affects to the physical and biological entities of the environment.
- Track 8-1 Air Pollution
- Track 8-2 Water Pollution
- Track 8-3 Soil Pollution
- Track 8-4 Noise Pollution
- Track 8-5 Radioactive Pollution
- Track 8-6 Thermal Pollution
Any substance or a material that change the chemistry of the environment causing undesirable or adverse effects to the existing resources, they are the main cause of pollution or we can define them as the components of pollution. The pollutants can be categorized into different type basis upon their existence, form of persistence and from biological view like qualitative and quantitative pollutant, primary and secondary pollutant and bio-degradable and non-degradable pollutant respectively. Pollutants may result in allergies, threats to other life forms and even deaths. Pollutants can be distinguished into many sub-categories basis upon their origin, structure and physical and chemical property among all the pollutants the air pollutants were the most vulnerable maximum harmful activities and infection were reported due to air pollution.
- Track 9-1 Air Pollutants
- Track 9-2 Water Pollutants
- Track 9-3 Soil Pollutants
- Track 9-4 Noise pollutants
- Track 9-5Stock and Fund Pollutants
In field of ecology and biology the term extinction refers to an end of an individual who was the last of the existing species from the world’s page generally it points out a group or a species. Extinction is a natural phenomenon on an average five to six species were extinct per year which is a natural background rate but due to human influence the rate is unevenly high ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 species per year. It is a critical point where the extinction must be lowered down to maintain the balance. There are many drivers to drive down the extinction like over exploitation, habitat loss, pollution, climate change and introduction of exotic species also, factors like competition, pathogens, predation/herbivory etc also leads the gateway to the extinction of a species.
- Track 10-1 Co-Extinction.
- Track 10-2Mass Extinction
- Track 10-3Anthropogenic Extinction
- Track 10-4Overexploitation
- Track 10-5IUCN Red List
The species which were threatened by the existing climatic and environmental factors that were highly influenced by the human activity and were in peak of the extinction process are known to be the endangered species. Many countries develop different pathways to safeguard the life of animals and plants but very few of them make it to the list many undergoes extinction before reaching the list. In these present times, they usually exist in declining population size due to factors like hunting, habitat loss and climate change. With few left and many to risk of extinction they must be protected and conserved by exhibiting programmes like habitat preservation, habitat restoration, ex-situ conservation etc. Some of the greatest ecological problems are the threats to stability of whole ecosystems if key species vanish at any level of the organic phenomenon.
- Track 11-1Mammals
- Track 11-2Aves
- Track 11-3Insecta
- Track 11-4Amphibia
- Track 11-5Reptilia
- Track 11-6Angiosperms and Gymnosperms
- Track 11-7Protection
The term describing the whole range of variants and their adaptation to different climates, with regards to their ecological system in which they thrive is said to be as biodiversity. The variants include all different types of living being from micro-organisms to well-developed complexes organisms explaining their interactions with the nature. It is important as it helps in enhancing the ecosystem’s ability to do the essential processes of ecology like production of oxygen, storage and recycling of nutrients, formation of soils etc. but the pace can be distributed by lessening biodiversity. Biodiversity is the store house of food, natural and industrial products that sustain the life on earth and maintain ecological balance in the system but factors like habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, pollution, over-exploitation and introduction of exotic species put the biodiversity in a critical position of extinction, the conservation of biodiversity focused on maintaining the ecological processes, diversity of species and to sustain the utilization of species and ecosystems.
- Track 12-1 Ecosystem and Habitat
- Track 12-2 Species
- Track 12-3Genetic Resources
- Track 12-4Biodiversity Agreements
- Track 12-5Human Impact
- Track 12-6Conservation
- Track 12-7Overpopulation
An evolved philosophical approach to manage the available natural resources, aiming of managing resources in an ecosystem-based rather than independently while maintaining their ecological integrity represents ecological management. It helps in sustaining the natural resources without disturbing the ecology. Traditional management systems concentrate on extraction of natural resources, and their manipulation and governance. This approach has oft resulted in harmful failures like, the collapse of fish stocks, forest loss, desertification, and death of coral reefs but the alternative ‘ecosystem management’ approaches emphasise the practicality of coupled social-ecological systems. scheme management advocates system-wide views that incorporate multiple spatial and temporal scales, and recognises that ecological processes area unit inherently unpredictable. It conjointly emphasises a democratic approach to call making. Thus, scheme management is that the science and follow of managing natural resources and ecological processes, to fulfil multiple demands of society. It will be native, regional or international in scope, and underpins economic and environmental security and property.
- Track 13-1 Preservation
- Track 13-2Restoration
- Track 13-3Sustainable Management
- Track 13-4Economics of Ecosystem
- Track 13-5Ecological Integrity
The study dealing with both biotic and abiotic features of an ecosystem and their interaction with one another which allow us to study the life and the base unit for supporting it, as the whole life hinge on resource recycling among the biotic and abiotic component the main objective of the ecosystem ecology is to work out on these interactions working on fields like atmospheric chemistry, physiology, hydrology, social science and ecology. Understanding the function of ecosystem begins with understanding the conversion of sunlight to usable energy, nutrition cycle and the impact of all on the mankind. In other words, ecosystem ecology is the study of biotic and abiotic components within the surrounding and their interaction with both natural and artificial changes.
- Track 14-1 Primary Productivity
- Track 14-2 Decomposition
- Track 14-3Trophic Interactions
- Track 14-4Energy Flow
- Track 14-5Predation
The unprocessed materials that which are supplied by the nature or by the earth to meet our basic and other needs were referred to be as natural resources they are available in both biotic and abiotic forms. With the advancement of technology and civilization now it is possible to harness energy of different kinds so natural resources are the materials that can be utilized for the human growth and development but overuse of it leads to destruction and catastrophic effects so the conservation leads to a sustainable use. Now days due to the ability of human being to domesticate animals for their products and ability to grow out products from nature causes undesirable changes in the environment and in the ability and purity of the natural resources the greed of mankind has changed the availability of natural resources and put it to the threat of extinction.
- Track 15-1 Energy and Electricity
- Track 15-2Forest
- Track 15-3 Extractive Industries
- Track 15-4Renewable and Non- Renewable Resources
- Track 15-5Potential Resources
- Track 15-6Stock and Reserve Resources
In the modern ways of farming system which involves mostly the chemical fertilizer pollutes the environment in terms of air, water and soil contributing towards climate change and loss of biodiversity for the above problem the word ecological farming has been derived which follow the principle of agroecology which only need a systemic approach. It safeguards the respect of the society and it is economically viable. To increase food handiness globally, and to improve livelihoods in poorer regions, we must reduce the unsustainable use of what we tend to grow now and we must scale back food waste, decrease meat consumption, and minimise the use of land for bioenergy. we should also accomplish higher yields wherever they are needed – through ecological means. Ecological farming not only safeguards the planet’s life it also contributes towards fighting hunger and poverty that enables safe and healthy life for present as usual for future.
- Track 16-1Food Sovereignty
- Track 16-2Benefiting Farmers
- Track 16-3Sustainable water and soil health
- Track 16-4Climate resilience
The word sustainability has become a broad topic which can be applied to every angle of life on the planet, natural ecosystems and the interaction between nature and life is being slowly declining as a result the nature is giving negative feedback on each human and existing being on the earth. Ecological sustainability deals with the capacity of the planet how it meets the needs of present generation without hindering the future generation needs it has been developed because human can overtire the available resource leaving nothing for the future except the polluted planet with no resources. Paul Hawken has written that "Sustainability is regarding stabilising the presently riotous relationship between earth’s most complicated systems—human culture and therefore the living world.”
- Track 17-1National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development
Ecosystem dynamics allow us to study the change in the ecosystem overtime due to the dynamic nature of the ecosystem it is subject to regular disturbances which can be a micro disturbance or a macro disturbance. The ecosystem dynamics help in finding out the positive and negative loops of the biological regulation in the environment. Ecosystem were dynamic entities which work better in an equilibrium of internal and external factors, and any disturbance in the equilibrium is regained to its original state by negative feedback. Like everything is measured in the nature the terms Resistance and Resilience were used to measure the dynamics of the ecosystem both have two different definitions, resistance is the term used for the ability of the system to remain in equilibrium state and resilience is the recovery speed of the system to its equilibrium state.
- Track 18-1Factors (Internal and External)
- Track 18-2Resistance and Resilience
- Track 18-3Dynamics in Human Population
- Track 18-4Succession
Study involving the ecology of infectious diseases, their interaction with host and their respective parasites and pathogens, and circles round the human and wildlife diseases. Ecological epidemiology helps in developing models that will help support the public health and concerns on food safety. As we know parasites were the important species to be understood to study the role of epidemiology in ecological epidemiology the ecologists deal with the host and parasite interaction and their dynamics for easy understanding of their growth and development how they affect and how they can be controlled to lead a healthy environment. In near studies by the help of ecological epidemiology, ecologist can make out the unanswered question i.e. to what extent the parasite can affect the plant and animal population. Ecologist are now concerned with the above but long ago they have been concerned about effects of other factors like food resources, predators and competitors.
Rather than discrete it is the field of ecology that is as an interdisciplinary discipline, it is a field that studies the radioactive particle or ionizing radiation with respect to environment and its components like communities and ecosystems. Radiation ecology helps us to evaluate the pathway of radionuclide in a system like soil, water, air and organisms and its effect upon the system. It also allows studying the structure and function of an ecosystem. The development of the nuclear weapons parallels the history of radioecology and as the evolvement of life on this planet has been going under the ionizing radiation of the environment, there are evidence to put forward to convince that the natural radiation has gone under significant changes due to activities involvement in uranium industries.
- Track 20-1Natural and Anthropogenic Radiation
- Track 20-2Radionuclide Migration
- Track 20-3 Effect on Population and Ecosystem
- Track 20-4Formation/Degradation of Species community
The marine ecosystem is continuous and it is the system where there is absence of abiotic zones. Marine ecology is an interactive branch of ecology that deals with the structural and functional relationships within the marine organisms with their respective physio-chemical surroundings, the ecological system is being distributed by human due to the continuous and inexhaustible interference. Since our existence we have depend upon the ocean for food, waste dumping etc. due to the involvement today the marine ecology has come to an alarming state killing thousands of species and their habitats. Scientists also revealed that due to increasing CO2 gas in the atmosphere result in greater absorption of CO2 in oceans creating acidification to the ocean chemistry because of which the marine ecology is being distributed and hampered.
- Track 21-1Estuarine and Marine nurseries
- Track 21-2Deep sea biodiversity
- Track 21-3Seagrass ecosystems
- Track 21-4Coral reefs
- Track 21-5Sea turtles
- Track 21-6Fishing
- Track 21-7Ecosystem-based management
- Track 21-8Marine protected areas
The main part of the evolution is controlled by the environmental factors in which the organism thrives, it is a way where the ecologist and biologists can know the interaction of organism with their environment and the changes that has evolved in due course of time. In general ecology and evolution are intimately related because the organism’s ecological situation decides its survival and evolution. It takes the system from simple to complexity. Evolutionary ecology allows the researcher to reveal the whole spectrum of an organism starting from its development via research in evolutionary genetics, behavioural ecology and functional design, the evolution of life-histories and population dynamics, and ecosystem-level effects of interactions among species.
- Track 22-1Evolutionary developmental biology
- Track 22-2Metagenomics
- Track 22-3Phylogeography and ecosystem construction
- Track 22-4Plant conservation genetics
- Track 22-5Interactions between the physical and biotic environments
- Track 22-6Interactions between the physical and biotic environments
- Track 22-7The genomic diversity of neglected taxa